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Book Bibliography & Notes
Below is a bibliography of citations along with relevant notes to informative articles on topics I share in my book “Nourish Your Self Whole.” This is not exhaustive, I put in citations relating mostly to key scientific claims focused on major points. They are organized by book section. Since the book is in print, ebook and audio, using page numbers was not possible. these are laid out in the order they appear in the book and organized by chapters and sections.
“This comes as no surprise when you learn that fewer than twenty percent of U.S. medical schools have a single required course in nutrition.”
“Many of us erroneously chalk our health trajectory up to our genes, which is the biological equivalent of the luck of the draw. However, scientific research shows that about eighty-four percent of disease is actually determined by our epigenetics. This is a term meaning our nutritional, environmental, and lifestyle factors, with food being a top driver.”
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Apr;21(4):214-22. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2009.12.007. Epub 2010 Jan 14.
Epigenetic transgenerational actions of environmental factors in disease etiology.
Skinner MK1, Manikkam M, Guerrero-Bosagna C.
“Recent studies, however, have found that 84 percent of the risk of chronic disease is not genetic, but environmental and behavioral (Rappaport 2016). Our genes do play a role in determining which diseases we’re predisposed to developing, but the choices we make about diet, physical activity, sleep, stress management, and other lifestyle factors are far more important determinants of our health.”
PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0154387. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154387. eCollection 2016.
Genetic Factors Are Not the Major Causes of Chronic Diseases. Rappaport SM.
“If you are like me and have tried to lose weight for years by exercising it off, with little success, you might be surprised to learn what research shows about exercise. While physical exercise, especially cardiovascular exercise, is so important for the body in so many ways, it’s thought to account for only about twenty percent of weight loss (unless you are doing crazy hardcore workouts). The other eighty percent? You guessed it, primarily comes from dietary shifts.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044163/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3862452/ https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/16/upshot/to-lose-weight-eating-less-is-far-more-important-than-exercising-more.html?_r=0
Mood & Emotions:
“Research is beginning to demonstrate that a nourishing diet, or lack thereof, can have a significant impact on our emotional well-being and mood, sometimes as much as or more than psychological or other external stressors.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23720230 Ann Neurol.
2013 Oct;74(4):580-91. doi: 10.1002/ana.23944. Epub 2013 Sep 16.
Mediterranean diet, stroke, cognitive impairment, and depression: A meta-analysis.
Psaltopoulou T1, Sergentanis TN, Panagiotakos DB, Sergentanis IN, Kosti R, Scarmeas N.
BMC Med. 2013; 11: 208.
Published online 2013 Sep 20. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-208
Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial
Almudena Sánchez-Villegas,corresponding author1,2 Miguel Angel Martínez-González,1,3 Ramón Estruch,1,4 Jordi Salas-Salvadó,1,5 Dolores Corella,1,6 Maria Isabel Covas,1,7 Fernando Arós,1,8 Dora Romaguera,1,9,10 Enrique Gómez-Gracia,1,11 José Lapetra,1,12 Xavier Pintó,1,13 Jose Alfredo Martínez,1,14 Rosa María Lamuela-Raventós,1,15 Emilio Ros,1,16,17 Alfredo Gea,1,3 Julia Wärnberg,1,11 and Lluis Serra-Majem1,2
Additional Good background information:
Harvard Health Blog: Nutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food by Eva Selhub, MD
You are what you eat? How nutrition may affect brain health
Sugar is Addictive:
“Sugar is one of the most addictive substances on the planet. It stimulates dopamine receptors (also known as “pleasure centers”) in the brain, which can make it a real challenge to resist if you are regularly hopped up on it. The good news is that once you shift your eating habits, the cravings for this drug dissipate.”
British Journal of Sports Medicine; Volume 52, issue 14
Sugar addiction: is it real? A narrative review
James J DiNicolantonio1, James H O’Keefe1, William L Wilson2
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2018; 9: 545. Published online 2018 Nov 7.
Sugar Addiction: From Evolution to Revolution
David A. Wiss,1 Nicole Avena,2 and Pedro Rada3
Sugar and Body Fat:
“Sugars are considered a type of carbohydrate. That’s because, like other carbs, they convert to glucose (a form of sugar) in the body, which is then used as energy. When our glucose levels are too high, as often happens when we consume too many sugars, especially from things like refined carbs (such as white flour), the excess sugar is often stored as body fat. That’s right, whenever you consistently have too much glucose in the body, it triggers a hormone called insulin to raise, which can trigger your body to deposit the converted glucose as fat into your cells for storage. This in turn leads to weight gain. (These processes are actually more complicated than that, and weight gain can be caused by many factors, but this gives you a broad sense of what is happening.)”
The Clinical Biochemist Revues 2005 May; 26(2): 19–39. Insulin and Insulin Resistance
Harvard School of Public Health, No author
Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar
Sugar, Inflammation and Disease:
“Our ancestors’ diets were nowhere near as heavily weighted towards the amounts of simple carbs that we eat today, which are known to be highly inflammatory in the body.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2006 Aug 15;48(4):677-85. Epub 2006 Jul 24. Giugliano D1, Ceriello A, Esposito K.
The effects of diet on inflammation: emphasis on the metabolic syndrome.
Does Sugar Cause Inflammation in the Body?
“And this is a rapidly growing problem as our sugar consumption alone is about 152 lbs. a year for the average American! That’s way up from 123 lbs. in 1970, and just two lbs. a year 200 years ago.”
Department of Health and Human Services Report:
“Anthropological evidence shows us that the biggest risks and causes of death in the distant past were injury and infectious diseases. A diet high in refined carbs and sugars (and bad fats) is certainly not the only factor in our health decline as a species, but it is one of the bigger culprits. When our blood sugar levels remain elevated from our modern, highly refined carb and sugar diets—and when we consume too much inflammatory bad fat and not enough good fat—it causes inflammation as well as oxidation. These two processes are believed to be the biggest causes of most modern disease. Some research shows that those with the highest intake of sugar have a 275% increased risk of heart disease!”
JAMA Internal Medicine April 2014
Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults
Quanhe Yang, PhD1; Zefeng Zhang, MD, PhD1; Edward W. Gregg, PhD2; et al
Sugar and Diabetes:
“There is a lot of good growing data, as well as anecdotal evidence from practitioners working with diabetics, that lifestyle shifts like these can actually reverse type 2 diabetes. It sometimes takes support from a good practitioner to get there, but the current numbers show that around seventy percent of type 2 diabetics can go into full remission on a changed diet, no longer needing insulin, while the rest see significant improvement and less need for insulin shots.”
European Journal of Clinical Nutrtrition. 2018 Mar;72(3):311-325.
The interpretation and effect of a low-carbohydrate diet in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Huntriss R1, Campbell M2, Bedwell C2.
JAMA Intern Med. Published online November 4, 2019. doi:
Comparison of Group Medical Visits Combined With Intensive Weight Management vs Group Medical Visits Alone for Glycemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Noninferiority Randomized Clinical Trial
William S. Yancy Jr, MD1,2,3; Matthew J. Crowley, MD1,4; Moahad S. Dar, MD5,6; et alCynthia J. Coffman, PhD1,7; Amy S. Jeffreys, MStat1; Matthew L. Maciejewski, PhD1,8; Corrine I. Voils, PhD9,10; Anna Barton Bradley, MD11; David Edelman, MD1,2
Harvard Health Blog. SEPTEMBER 06, 2018
Healthy lifestyle can prevent diabetes (and even reverse it)
Monique Tello, MD,
Nutrients. 2019 Apr; 11(4): 766.
Reversing Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review of the Evidence
Sarah J Hallberg,1,2,3,* Victoria M Gershuni,4 Tamara L Hazbun,2,3 and Shaminie J Athinarayanan1
Journal of Natural Science Biology and Medicine. 2017 Jan-Jun; 8(1): 60–63.
High rates of diabetes reversal in newly diagnosed Asian Indian young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus with intensive lifestyle therapy
Vijaya Sarathi, Anish Kolly, H. B. Chaithanya, and C. S. Dwarakanath
JMIR Diabetes; Published on 07.03.17 in Vol 2, No 1 (2017): Jan-Jun
A Novel Intervention Including Individualized Nutritional Recommendations Reduces Hemoglobin A1c Level, Medication Use, and Weight in Type 2 Diabetes
Amy L McKenzie1, PhD ; Sarah J Hallberg1,2, DO, MS ; Brent C Creighton1, PhD ; Brittanie M Volk1, RD, PhD ; Theresa M Link1, RD, CDE ; Marcy K Abner1, RD ; Roberta M Glon1, RN, BSN ; James P McCarter1, MD, PhD ; Jeff S Volek1, RD, PhD ; Stephen D Phinney1, MD, PhD
Health benefits of healthy fats:
“Omega-3 PUFAs, on the other hand, are now universally believed to be an important dietary staple. These fats are actually anti-inflammatory, helping to cool down an overrun immune system.”
Harvard Health Publishing.
The truth about fats: the good, the bad, and the in-between: Avoid the trans fats, limit the saturated fats, and replace with essential polyunsaturated fats.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Mar;12(2):129-37. Andrew N Margioris.
Fatty acids and postprandial inflammation
inflammatory fats data:
BMJ. 2013 Feb 4;346:e8707. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e8707.
Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis.
Ramsden CE1, Zamora D, Leelarthaepin B, Majchrzak-Hong SF, Faurot KR, Suchindran CM, Ringel A, Davis JM, Hibbeln JR.
America’s most widely consumed oil causes genetic changes in the brain
Soybean oil linked to metabolic and neurological changes in mice
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA – RIVERSIDE
Free radicals in fried foods:
Toxicology Reports. 2016; 3: 636–643. Rekhadevi Perumalla Venkata⁎ and Rajagopal Subramanyam
Evaluation of the deleterious health effects of consumption of repeatedly heated vegetable oil
The balance of Omega six and Omega 3 fats in diets off balance:
Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;60(9):502–7.
Industrial seed oils fats and oxidation:
“Highly processed, easily oxidizable, and inflammatory industrial vegetable seed oils, which we’ve been told for decades are so much better for us, are actually a big villain.”
Ramsden CE, Ringel A, Feldstein AE, et al. Lowering dietary linoleic acid reduces bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2012;87(4–5):135–41.
Good overview article: https://chriskresser.com/how-industrial-seed-oils-are-making-us-sick/
Does High Fat Diet Cause weight gain?
Do ketogenic diets [high fat] really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta‐analysis
A. A. Gibson R. V. Seimon C. M. Y. Lee J. Ayre J. Franklin T. P. Markovic I. D. Caterson A. Sainsbury
First published: 17 November 2014 https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12230 Citations: 70
Healthy Fats are good:
“Healthy fats are calorically (and nutritionally) dense and feed the body better per calorie than carbs and sugar. Therefore, you get a much better bang for your buck and are able to satiate your body more than you can with carbs and sugar. You have to eat a lot more carbs and sugar for your body to get the energy it needs to run than you do with fat. This is a particularly important point for those who are trying to manage their weight.”
What Is the Most Energy-Dense of All Macronutrients?
Written by Adrienne Miriani, SFGate
Cholesterol and Saturated Fat not linked:
PLoS One. 2014 Nov 21;9(11):e113605. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113605. eCollection 2014.
Effects of step-wise increases in dietary carbohydrate on circulating saturated Fatty acids and palmitoleic Acid in adults with metabolic syndrome.
Volk BM1, Kunces LJ1, Freidenreich DJ1, Kupchak BR1, Saenz C1, Artistizabal JC2, Fernandez ML3, Bruno RS4, Maresh CM1, Kraemer WJ1, Phinney SD5, Volek JS6.
Low carb combined with saturated fat:
Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet. Lipids. 2010 Oct;45(10):947–62. Cassandra E. Forsythe,1 Stephen D. Phinney,4 Richard D. Feinman,3 Brittanie M. Volk,1 Daniel Freidenreich,1 Erin Quann,1 Kevin Ballard,1 Michael J. Puglisi,1,2 Carl M. Maresh,1 William J. Kraemer,1 Douglas M. Bibus,5 Maria Luz Fernandez,2 and Jeff S. Volekcorresponding author1
Ameer F, Scandiuzzi L, Hasnain S, Kalbacher H, Zaidi N. De novo lipogenesis in health and disease. Metabolism. 2014 Jul;63(7):895–902.
Stroke risk lower with higher saturated fat diets:
“Conclusion: This meta-analysis further demonstrated that a higher consumption of dietary SFA is associated with a lower risk of stroke, and every 10 g/day increase in SFA intake is associated with a 6% relative risk reduction in the rate of stroke. Further research is needed to explore the influence of specific SFA types and different macronutrient replacement models of SFA on the stroke risk.”
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2020 Feb 10;30(2):179-189. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2019.09.028. Epub 2019 Oct 1. Dietary saturated fat intake and risk of stroke: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Zhou-Qing Kang 1, Ying Yang 2, Bo Xiao 2
Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency:
“More than a third of our population—some studies show over half—are deficient in basic vitamins and minerals. This is according to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) standards, which are relatively minimal requirements based on population averages rather than populations that are more healthy. There are health experts who believe that some of the RDA standards are simply meant to keep us out of acute disease states rather than ideal health.”
Nutrients. 2017 Jul; 9(7): 655. Published online 2017 Jun 24. Risk of Deficiency in Multiple Concurrent Micronutrients in Children and Adults in the United States
Julia K. Bird,1,* Rachel A. Murphy,2 Eric D. Ciappio,3 and Michael I. McBurney3
Antioxidants and Phytonutrients:
“These substances literally put out fires in the body. That’s their job. They help undo at least some of the detrimental circumstances and choices we inevitably face in our lives, whether they are food choices, environmental exposures, stress, or something else.”
Antioxidants: In Depth. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
“Free radicals are unstable atoms that form in the body in relation to oxidation. When there are too many, free radicals can be extremely reactive and destructive to the body’s proper functioning.”
How do free radicals affect the body? Medical News Today
Forming Healthier Habits:
“Remember, though, that every small step you take should improve your health. Taking it all on step by step is a smart idea. In fact, research suggests that this is the way long-standing habits are formed. You don’t have to push through all at once.”
Making Lifestyle changes that last. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/lifestyle-changes.aspx.
“Snacking can trigger your digestion to slow as the body senses more coming in. As a result, it holds on to what’s currently in your system for a longer period than is desirable. Snacking is also a cause of weight gain, as it doesn’t allow your digestive system to fire off the hormones that signal your body to burn fat rather than new food. This is an oversimplification, but when your body gets the signal that you are taking in more food, it keeps trying to store that excess energy as body fat.”
How Grazing Affects Your Digestive Function: Snacking could come with risks in the digestive department.
U.S. news and World Reports By Tamara Duker Freuman, Contributor. Jan. 28, 2014
“There is also good research about fasting longer. While some people do very fancy fasting protocols, sometimes going 24 hours or more without eating on occasion (which has been shown to extend lifespan and health in some research), it is thought more broadly to allow at least 12 hours between meals at least once a day.”
Intermittent fasting: Surprising update Harvard Health Blog. POSTED JUNE 29, 2018
Monique Tello, MD
Intermittent Fasting: The Science Behind the Trend. by Chris Kresser, M.S.
The immune system in intestines and leaky gut:
Harvard Health Blog Leaky gut: What is it, and what does it mean for you?
Marcelo Campos, MD
John Hopkins Medicine. The Gut: Where Bacteria and Immune System Meet
By Helen Fields
Gluten and dairy intolerances:
The Symptoms of Gluten Intolerance You Haven’t Heard About By Chris Kresser
Dairy: Food of the Gods or Neolithic Agent of Disease? by Chris Kresser, M.S.
Mental Health and Nutrition:
How to Rewire Your Traumatized Brain By Concepción de León
Harvard Health Blog: Nutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food by Eva Selhub, MD
How meditation and mindfulness contribute to Health:
Everyday Health. How Meditation Can Help Manage Illness By Ashley Welch
According to the University of Michigan School of Medicine:
“Deep breathing is one of the best ways to lower stress in the body. This is because when you breathe deeply, it sends a message to your brain to calm down and relax. The brain then sends this message to your body. Those things that happen when you are stressed, such as increased heart rate, fast breathing, and high blood pressure, all decrease as you breathe deeply to relax.”
Toxins in the Body:
“The Environmental Working Group (EWG), reports that the average person carries ninety-one toxic chemicals in their blood and urine. Those are just the chemicals being released from the body. I’ve read studies that have identified many more chemicals when you include muscle tissue and organ storage, which is where toxins go to be stored when your body is overrun and can’t “detox” properly.”
“A recent study by the Environmental Working Group detected 287 commercial chemicals, pesticides, and pollutants in the umbilical cord blood from 10 newborn infants, randomly selected by the Red Cross from U.S. hospitals.”
BODY BURDEN: THE POLLUTION IN NEWBORNS: SCIENTISTS’ AND PEDIATRICIANS’ STATEMENT. on EWG Study of Industrial Chemicals in Umbilical Cord Blood
Outdoor Air Quality:
“Some research estimates that indoor air quality can be two to five times more polluted than outside air.”
Volatile Organic Compounds’ Impact on Indoor Air Quality. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Candles and Toxins:
“Paraffin is a petroleum waste product that is also found in diesel fumes, yikes! When burned, paraffin-based candles emit toxic chemicals like toluene and benzene, which can contribute to health risks like cancer, common allergies, and even asthma over time.”
Study: Some types of candles may pollute indoor air
Why I Don’t Use Scented Candles
Plastics and Toxins:
“A recent study released by Environmental Health Perspectives showed that most plastic products, from sippy cups to food wraps and water bottles, can release chemicals that act like the sex hormone estrogen.”
Most Plastic Products Contain Potentially Toxic Chemicals, Study Reveals
From yogurt containers to bath mats, stuff you use every day may come with hidden risks. Here are tips to minimize exposure. By Kevin Loria, Last updated: October 02, 2019
Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 119, No. 7. Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved. Chun Z. Yang, Stuart I. Yaniger, V. Craig Jordan, Daniel J. Klein, and George D. Bittner. Published:1 July 2011
“In fact, research has estimated that the average person can get between 74,000 and 120,000 particles in their body a year.”
Human Consumption of Microplastics. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019, 53, 12, 7068
Kieran D. Cox*, Garth A. Covernton, Hailey L. Davies, John F. Dower, Francis Juanes, and Sarah E. Dudas
“Animal studies have shown that the base chemicals used to make Teflon (one of the most commonly used nonstick materials) cause growth defects, cancer, liver damage, immune system damage, and have even caused death in lab rats and monkeys. An EPA advisory panel reports it as a “likely carcinogen” in humans.”
PFOA, PFOS and Other PFASs by EPA
“Sunlight gets a bad rap. While it is true that too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) spectrum light can be damaging, the same can be true for too little exposure to the many types of light waves that are essential nutrients. A growing field of health experts now believe we have overcompensated and now have too little exposure, which is having damaging consequences.”
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):683-90. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0982. Epub 2011 Feb 4. Ultraviolet exposure and mortality among women in Sweden. Yang L1, Lof M, Veierød MB, Sandin S, Adami HO, Weiderpass E.
Does Avoiding the Sun Shorten Your Lifespan? by Chris Kresser.
Healing Power of Nature:
“This is probably not surprising to most, but plenty of research has shown that spending time in nature has been shown to reduce stress and to have a very calming effect on the body.”
Just 20 minutes of contact with nature will lower stress hormone levels, reveals new study.
“Research actually shows that walking meetings increase productivity and creativity as well as build stronger rapport among the team.”
Stanford News. APRIL 24, 2014 Stanford study finds walking improves creativity
“To (over)simplify this, the process of how we get good sleep is driven by both light exposure and hormones like melatonin and cortisol. Essentially, melatonin tells our body when to sleep and cortisol kicks in to help wake us and give us an energy boost to start our day. Our body systems are far more susceptible to not getting enough sleep when we get too much light too late in the evening, or poor-quality light at any point during the day.”
How Artificial Light Is Wrecking Your Sleep, and What to Do about It. By Chris Kresser